Wednesday, June 6, 2018

VPNFilter Update - VPNFilter exploits endpoints, targets new devices





Introduction



Cisco Talos, while working with our various intelligence partners, has discovered additional details regarding "VPNFilter." In the days since we first published our findings on the campaign, we have seen that VPNFilter is targeting more makes/models of devices than initially thought, and has additional capabilities, including the ability to deliver exploits to endpoints. Talos recently published a blog about a broad campaign that delivered VPNFilter to small home-office network devices, as well as network-attached storage devices. As we stated in that post, our research into this threat was, and is, ongoing. In the wake of that post, we have had a number of partners step forward with additional information that has assisted us in our work. This post is an update of our findings over the past week.

First, we have determined that additional devices are being targeted by this actor, including some from vendors that are new to the target list. These new vendors are ASUS, D-Link, Huawei, Ubiquiti, UPVEL, and ZTE. New devices were also discovered from Linksys, MikroTik, Netgear, and TP-Link. Our research currently shows that no Cisco network devices are affected. We've provided an updated device list below.

We have also discovered a new stage 3 module that injects malicious content into web traffic as it passes through a network device. At the time of our initial posting, we did not have all of the information regarding the suspected stage 3 modules. The new module allows the actor to deliver exploits to endpoints via a man-in-the-middle capability (e.g. they can intercept network traffic and inject malicious code into it without the user's knowledge). With this new finding, we can confirm that the threat goes beyond what the actor could do on the network device itself, and extends the threat into the networks that a compromised network device supports. We provide technical details on this module, named "ssler" below.

Additionally, we've discovered an additional stage 3 module that provides any stage 2 module that lacks the kill command the capability to disable the device. When executed, this module specifically removes traces of the VPNFilter malware from the device and then renders the device unusable. Analysis of this module, called "dstr," is also provided below.

Finally, we've conducted further research into the stage 3 packet sniffer, including in-depth analysis of how it looks for Modbus traffic.

Technical details

New third-stage modules



'ssler' (Endpoint exploitation module — JavaScript injection)

The ssler module, which we pronounce as "Esler," provides data exfiltration and JavaScript injection capabilities by intercepting all traffic passing through the device destined for port 80. This module is expected to be executed with a parameter list, which determines the module's behavior and which websites should be targeted. The first positional parameter controls the folder on the device where stolen data should be stored. The purpose of the other named parameters are as follows:

  • dst: — Used by the iptables rules created to specify a destination IP address or CIDR range that the rule should apply to.
  • src: — Used by the iptables rules created to specify a source IP address or CIDR range that the rule should apply to.
  • dump: — Any domain passed in a dump parameter will have all of its HTTP headers recorded in the reps_*.bin file.
  • site: — When a domain is provided in the "site" parameter, this domain will have its web pages targeted for JavaScript injection.
  • hook: — This parameter determines the URL of the JavaScript file for injection.


The first action taken by the ssler module is to configure the device's iptables to redirect all traffic destined for port 80 to its local service listening on port 8888. It starts by using the insmod command to insert three iptables modules into the kernel (ip_tables.ko, iptable_filter.ko, iptable_nat.ko) and then executes the following shell commands:

  • iptables -I INPUT -p tcp --dport 8888 -j ACCEPT
  • iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -p tcp --dport 80 -j REDIRECT --to-port 8888
  • Example: ./ssler logs src:192.168.201.0/24 dst:10.0.0.0/16
-A PREROUTING -s 192.168.201.0/24 -d 10.0.0.0/16 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -j REDIRECT --to-ports 8888

Note: To ensure that these rules do not get removed, ssler deletes them and then adds them back approximately every four minutes.

Any outgoing web requests on port 80 are now intercepted by ssler and can be inspected and manipulated before being sent to the legitimate HTTP service. All HTTP requests are sslstripped. That is, the following changes are made to requests before being sent to the true HTTP server:

  • Any instances of the string https:// are replaced with http://, converting requests for secure HTTP resources to requests for insecure ones so sensitive data such as credentials can be extracted from them.
  • If the request contains the header Connection: keep-alive, it is replaced with Connection: close
  • If the request contains the header Accept-Encoding with the gzip value, this is converted to Accept-Encoding: plaintext/none so no responses will be compressed with gzip (exceptions are made for certain file types, such as images).


If the host is in one of the dump: parameters, the details of the request are saved to the disk for exfiltration, including the URL, port and all of the request headers. If the host is not in a dump: parameter, it will only dump requests with an Authorization header or URLs that have credentials in them. URLs are determined to have credentials if they contain either the string assword= or ass= and one of the following strings in them:

  • sername=
  • ser=
  • ame=
  • ogin=
  • ail=
  • hone=
  • session%5Busername
  • session%5Bpassword
  • session[password


Any POST requests to accounts.google.com containing the string signin will also be dumped.

After these modifications are made, a connection to the true HTTP server is made by ssler using the modified request data over port 80. Ssler receives the response from the HTTP server and makes the following changes to the response before passing it on to the victim:

  • A response with an https:// in its Location header value is converted to http://
  • The following headers are ignored, i.e. not sent to the client:
    • Alt-Scv
    • Vary
    • Content-MD5
    • content-security-policy
    • X-FB-Debug
    • public-key-pins-report-only
    • Access-Control-Allow-Origin
  • The entire response is sslstripped — that is, all instances of https:// with \x20http://.
  • If parameter site: is provided a domain (or part of a domain, e.g. "google"), it will attempt to inject JavaScript into all Content-Type: text/html or Content-Type: text/javascript responses. The requirement is that the string <meta name= … > be present and long enough to fit the string from the hook: parameter. The <meta name= … > tag will be replaced with <script type="text/javascript" src="[hook value]">. The victim IP combined with the site is then added to an internal whitelist in ssler and will not be targeted for injection again until the whitelist is cleared (which occurs every four days).

Each domain that is sslstripped in the responses (e.g. domains found in links) is then added to a list of stripped domains. Subsequent requests that are intercepted by the ssler module to domains in this list will occur via HTTPS over port 443, instead of HTTP over port 80. By default, four domains are on this list, so ssler will always connect to these domains via HTTPS over port 443: www.google.com, twitter.com, www.facebook.com, or www.youtube.com.

'dstr' (device destruction module)

The dstr modules are used to render an infected device inoperable by deleting files necessary for normal operation. It deletes all files and folders related to its own operation first before deleting the rest of the files on the system, possibly in an attempt to hide its presence during a forensic analysis.

The x86 version of the dstr module was analyzed in-depth. This module first deleted itself from the disk and then stops the execution of the parent Stage 2 process. It will then search all running process for ones named vpnfilter, security, and tor and terminate them. Next, it explicitly deletes the following files and directories:

  • /var/tmp/client_ca.crt
  • /var/tmp/client.key
  • /var/tmp/client.crt
  • /var/run/vpnfilterm/htpx
  • /var/run/vpnfilter
  • /var/run/vpn.tmp
  • /var/run/vpn.pid
  • /var/run/torrc
  • /var/run/tord/hidden_ssh/private_key
  • /var/run/tord/hidden_ssh/hostname
  • /var/run/tor
  • /var/run/msvf.pid
  • /var/run/client_ca.crt
  • /var/run/client.key
  • /var/run/client.crt
  • /var/pckg/mikrotik.o
  • /var/pckg/.mikrotik.
  • /var/msvf.pid
  • /var/client_ca.crt
  • /var/client.key
  • /var/client.crt
  • /tmp/client_ca.crt
  • /tmp/client.key
  • /tmp/client.crt
  • /flash/nova/etc/loader/init.x3
  • /flash/nova/etc/init/security
  • /flash/nova/etc/devel-login
  • /flash/mikrotik.o
  • /flash/.mikrotik.
  • /var/run/vpnfilterw/
  • /var/run/vpnfilterm/
  • /var/run/tord/hidden_ssh/
  • /var/run/tord/
  • /flash/nova/etc/loader/
  • /flash/nova/etc/init/


The dstr module clears flash memory by overwriting the bytes of all available /dev/mtdX devices with a 0xFF byte. Finally, the shell command rm -rf /* is executed to delete the remainder of the file system and the device is rebooted. At this point, the device will not have any of the files it needs to operate and fail to boot.

Additional research on the third stage packet sniffer

'ps' (stage 3 packet sniffer)

One of stage 3 packet sniffer module samples we have is the R600VPN MIPS-like (Lexra architecture) sample. This sample is a packet sniffer that is looking for basic authentication as well as monitoring ICS traffic, and is specific to the TP-LINK R600-VPN. The malware uses a raw socket to look for connections to a pre-specified IP address, only looking at TCP packets that are 150 bytes or larger (note: This is the full packet size, with headers. Depending on the size of the TCP header, the PDU could be approximately 56 to 96 bytes and still meet the criteria to get logged). It has the ability to view, but not modify, the network traffic. Very significant changes would be required to implement functionality that could modify traffic.



Packets that are not on port 502, are scanned for BasicAuth, and that information is logged.

  • Else: (non-Modbus traffic): sniffing HTTP basic auth credentials
    • Destination IP Address == command line argument IP address
    • Source port > 1024
    • Source port != 8080
    • Source port != 8088
    • Packet Data length > 20 bytes
    • Packet does not contain
      • </ and >
      • <?xml
      • Basic Og==
      • /tmUnblock.cgi
      • Password Required
      • <div
      • <form
      • <input
      • this. and .get
      • {
      • }
      • 200 OK
      • <span
      • <SPAN
      • <DIV
    • Packet contains 'Authorization: Basic' OR one user/pass combination
      • User
        • User=
        • user=
        • Name=
        • name=
        • Usr=
        • usr=
        • Login=
        • login=
      • Pass
        • Pass=
        • pass=
        • Password=
        • password=
        • Passwd=
        • passwd=


  • Logging: Logs on IPs and ports, but not the packet contents on port 502. It does not validate the traffic as Modbus.
    • Modbus - Logs SourceIP, SourcePort, DestinationIP, DestinationPort and labels it *modbus*
    • All Other - write full packet to log file if and only if it passes basic auth check

Conclusion


These new discoveries have shown us that the threat from VPNFilter continues to grow. In addition to the broader threat surface found with additional targeted devices and vendors, the discovery of the malware's capability to support the exploitation of endpoint devices expands the scope of this threat beyond the devices themselves, and into the networks those devices support. If successful, the actor would be able to deploy any desired additional capability into the environment to support their goals, including rootkits, exfiltration capability and destructive malware.

Talos would like to thank all of the individual researchers, companies and intelligence partners from around the world who have stepped forward to share information and address this threat. Your actions have helped us gain a greater understanding of this campaign, and in some cases, have directly improved the situation. We recognize this is a team sport, and truly appreciate your assistance.

We will continue to monitor VPNFilter and work with our partners to understand the threat as it continues to evolve in order to ensure that our customers remain protected and the public is informed.

Updated List of IOCs


As stated previously, we highly suspect that there are additional IOCs and versions of this malware that we are not currently aware of. The following list of IOCs comprises what we know as of this date. News IOCs are in BOLD below.

Known C2 Domains and IPs



Associated with the 1st Stage



photobucket[.]com/user/nikkireed11/library
photobucket[.]com/user/kmila302/library
photobucket[.]com/user/lisabraun87/library
photobucket[.]com/user/eva_green1/library
photobucket[.]com/user/monicabelci4/library
photobucket[.]com/user/katyperry45/library
photobucket[.]com/user/saragray1/library
photobucket[.]com/user/millerfred/library
photobucket[.]com/user/jeniferaniston1/library
photobucket[.]com/user/amandaseyfried1/library
photobucket[.]com/user/suwe8/library
photobucket[.]com/user/bob7301/library
toknowall[.]com

Associated with the 2nd Stage



91.121.109[.]209
217.12.202[.]40
94.242.222[.]68
82.118.242[.]124
46.151.209[.]33
217.79.179[.]14
91.214.203[.]144
95.211.198[.]231
195.154.180[.]60
5.149.250[.]54
94.185.80[.]82
62.210.180[.]229
91.200.13[.]76
23.111.177[.]114

6b57dcnonk2edf5a[.]onion/bin32/update.php
tljmmy4vmkqbdof4[.]onion/bin32/update.php
zuh3vcyskd4gipkm[.]onion/bin32/update.php
4seiwn2ur4f65zo4.onion/bin256/update.php
zm3lznxn27wtzkwa.onion/bin16/update.php

Known File Hashes



1st Stage Malware



50ac4fcd3fbc8abcaa766449841b3a0a684b3e217fc40935f1ac22c34c58a9ec
0e0094d9bd396a6594da8e21911a3982cd737b445f591581560d766755097d92
b9770ec366271dacdae8f5088218f65a6c0dd82553dd93f41ede586353986124
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6a76e3e98775b1d86b037b5ee291ccfcffb5a98f66319175f4b54b6c36d2f2bf
313d29f490619e796057d50ba8f1d4b0b73d4d4c6391cf35baaaace71ea9ac37

2nd Stage Malware


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ff471a98342bafbab0d341e0db0b3b9569f806d0988a5de0d8560b6729875b3e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3rd Stage Plugins


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Self-Signed Certificate Fingerprints



d113ce61ab1e4bfcb32fb3c53bd3cdeee81108d02d3886f6e2286e0b6a006747
c52b3901a26df1680acbfb9e6184b321f0b22dd6c4bb107e5e071553d375c851
f372ebe8277b78d50c5600d0e2af3fe29b1e04b5435a7149f04edd165743c16d
be4715b029cbd3f8e2f37bc525005b2cb9cad977117a26fac94339a721e3f2a5
27af4b890db1a611d0054d5d4a7d9a36c9f52dffeb67a053be9ea03a495a9302
110da84f31e7868ad741bcb0d9f7771a0bb39c44785055e6da0ecc393598adc8
fb47ba27dceea486aab7a0f8ec5674332ca1f6af962a1724df89d658d470348f
b25336c2dd388459dec37fa8d0467cf2ac3c81a272176128338a2c1d7c083c78
cd75d3a70e3218688bdd23a0f618add964603736f7c899265b1d8386b9902526
110da84f31e7868ad741bcb0d9f7771a0bb39c44785055e6da0ecc393598adc8
909cf80d3ef4c52abc95d286df8d218462739889b6be4762a1d2fac1adb2ec2b
044bfa11ea91b5559f7502c3a504b19ee3c555e95907a98508825b4aa56294e4
c0f8bde03df3dec6e43b327378777ebc35d9ea8cfe39628f79f20b1c40c1b412
8f1d0cd5dd6585c3d5d478e18a85e7109c8a88489c46987621e01d21fab5095d
d5dec646c957305d91303a1d7931b30e7fb2f38d54a1102e14fd7a4b9f6e0806
c0f8bde03df3dec6e43b327378777ebc35d9ea8cfe39628f79f20b1c40c1b412

Known Affected Devices



The following devices are known to be affected by this threat. Based on the scale of this research, much of our observations are remote and not on the device, so it is difficult to determine specific version numbers and models in many cases.

Given our observations with this threat, we assess that this list may still be incomplete and other devices may be affected.

Asus Devices:

RT-AC66U (new)
RT-N10 (new)
RT-N10E (new)
RT-N10U (new)
RT-N56U (new)
RT-N66U (new)

D-Link Devices:

DES-1210-08P (new)
DIR-300 (new)
DIR-300A (new)
DSR-250N (new)
DSR-500N (new)
DSR-1000 (new)
DSR-1000N (new)

Huawei Devices:

HG8245 (new)

Linksys Devices:

E1200
E2500
E3000 (new)
E3200 (new)
E4200 (new)
RV082 (new)
WRVS4400N

Mikrotik Devices:

CCR1009 (new)
CCR1016
CCR1036
CCR1072
CRS109 (new)
CRS112 (new)
CRS125 (new)
RB411 (new)
RB450 (new)
RB750 (new)
RB911 (new)
RB921 (new)
RB941 (new)
RB951 (new)
RB952 (new)
RB960 (new)
RB962 (new)
RB1100 (new)
RB1200 (new)
RB2011 (new)
RB3011 (new)
RB Groove (new)
RB Omnitik (new)
STX5 (new)



Netgear Devices:

DG834 (new)
DGN1000 (new)
DGN2200
DGN3500 (new)
FVS318N (new)
MBRN3000 (new)
R6400
R7000
R8000
WNR1000
WNR2000
WNR2200 (new)
WNR4000 (new)
WNDR3700 (new)
WNDR4000 (new)
WNDR4300 (new)
WNDR4300-TN (new)
UTM50 (new)

QNAP Devices:

TS251
TS439 Pro
Other QNAP NAS devices running QTS software

TP-Link Devices:

R600VPN
TL-WR741ND (new)
TL-WR841N (new)

Ubiquiti Devices:

NSM2 (new)
PBE M5 (new)

Upvel Devices:

Unknown Models* (new)

ZTE Devices:

ZXHN H108N (new)

* Malware targeting Upvel as a vendor has been discovered, but we are unable to determine which specific device it is targeting.

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